Alkaline Water Research

Research and clinical observations has shown that this kind of water has been helpful for all the below conditions or symptoms.

  • Helps prevent / reduce acidosis by helping the body maintain homeostasis because it is very alkaline
  • Reduces oxidative stress from ROS (Reactive Oxidative Species) because it is an antioxidant
  • Improves athletic performance – See also Mitochondrial Disorder as Mitochondria are where energy is produced and antioxidant
  • Arthritis, RA (rheumatoid arthritis) and joint disorders
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes
  • Digestive system improvements like IBD, constipation
  • Immune system modulation and helps with allergies
  • Metabolic Syndrome – Triglyceride, Cholesterol, Blood Pressure, Atherosclerosis
  • Mitochondrial Disorders
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases: Parkinson’s’, Alzheimer’s
  • Weight Loss / Obesity
  • Renal Failure
  • Acid Reflux
  • Stomach Ulcers
  • Indigestion
  • Constipation
  • Allergies
  • Skin conditions
  • Detox
  • Intestinal fermentation

Effects of molecular hydrogen on various diseases have been documented for 63 disease models and human diseases in the past four and a half years. Most studies have been performed on rodents including two models of Parkinson's disease and three models of Alzheimer's disease. Prominent effects are observed especially in oxidative stress-mediated diseases including neonatal cerebral hypoxia; Parkinson's disease; ischemia/reperfusion of spinal cord, heart, lung, liver, kidney, and intestine; transplantation of lung, heart, kidney, and intestine. Six human diseases have been studied to date: diabetes mellitus type 2, metabolic syndrome, haemodialysis, inflammatory and mitochondrial myopathies, brain stem infarction, and radiation-induced adverse effects.

Kinji Ohno, 1 ,* Mikako Ito, 1 Masatoshi Ichihara, 2 and Masafumi Ito Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012; 2012: 353152 Molecular Hydrogen as an Emerging Therapeutic Medical Gas for Neurodegenerative and Other Diseases

"Alkaline water rids the body of acid waste... After carefully evaluating the results of my advice to hundreds of individuals, I'm convinced that toxicity in the form of acidic waste is the primary cause of degenerative disease." Dr. Sherry Rogers

"I have administered over 5000 gallons of this water for about every health situation imaginable. I feel that restructured alkaline water can benefit everyone." Dr. Theodore Baroody

"International studies show that populations with little or no history of illness, such as cancer..., drink higher pH alkaline waters. After all potential risk factors were considered and factored out, it became evident that they had been drinking water with a 9.0 to 10.0." Dr. Len Horowitz

"Drinking four to six glasses of alkaline water a day will help to neutralize over acidity and over time will help to restore your buffering ability. Alkaline water acts as an antioxidant because of its excess supply of free electrons. This can help the body against the development of heart disease, strokes, immune dysfunctions, and other common ailments." Dr. Lark

"Drinking alkaline water is a great way to neutralize and flush out all of the toxins and acids that drain from the tissues and bodily fluids, and to quickly rehydrate the body and keep the blood alkaline." Daniel Reid

"You do not need expensive medicine with all the negative side effects to regain health... Alkaline water has profound long term effects because it alkalizes your body and provides an effective antioxidant". Dr. Ingfreid Hobert MD

"...people with more acidic blood were more likely to be ill. He defined a pH range of 7.4 to 7.5 to be associated with good health.” Dr William Howard Hay, MD

"If the world has accepted antioxidants to slow down the aging process, it should readily agree to the uses of ionized alkaline water as an antiaging agent. Their roles are closely linked and intertwined such that a lasting antiaging program is incomplete without addressing both free radicals and organic acid wastes." Dr Arthur M. Ecano, MD 


Scientific Studies:

Most cancer cells elongate telomere length to ensure immortality. ERW inhibits binding of telomerase to telomere region resulting in shortening of telomere length.1

H2 (Hydrogen) is able to rapidly diffuse across membranes. It can reach and react with cytotoxic ROS like hydroxyl radical.2

Acute oxidative stress causes serious damage to tissues. Persistent oxidative stress is one of the causes of many common diseases, such as cancer and it may also accelerate the aging process. ERW has anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects and it may also improve mitochondrial disorders.3

Alkaline reduced water with a high pH and low ORP, has an anti-diabetic and anti-cancer effect. Long term ingestion results in reduction in levels of glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol in the blood. It showed tumour growth delay and the life span of rats was significantly lengthened. It also inhibited metastasis.  It can also help to optimise the immune response (immunomodulator).4

ERW enhanced human lymphocyte resistance to DNA strand breaks by ROS. ERW could help prevent total RNA degradation. Enhances ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) about threefold when dissolved in ERW and it could have an inhibitory effect on the oxidation of ascorbic acid.5

Long term use improved T-Cell apoptosis and cytokines in end stage renal patients with chronic haemodialysis.6

ERW is an antioxidant and there is an enhanced inhibition effect of on leukaemia cells (HL60) with different combinations of Glutathione and ERW.7

ERW with Platinum nanoparticles is a potential new antioxidant against carcinogenesis.8

ERW suppresses growth of cancer cells and it exhibits a weak microbicidal effect, especially in low or smaller densities of the microorganisms. It may contribute to prevent the rot of food or improve the intestinal micro flora to prevent abnormal fermentation.9

ERW with Platinum Nanoparticles brings about the process of programmed cell death in cancer cells.10

Daily consumption of hydrogen-rich water is a potentially novel, therapeutic strategy for improving Quality of Life after radiation exposure. Consumption of hydrogen-rich water reduces the biological reaction to radiation-induced oxidative stress without compromising anti-tumor effects.11

This study suggests that H2 protected the immune system and alleviated the haematological injury induced by IR.12

In this study it showed that platinum nanocolloid-supplemented hydrogen-dissolved water inhibits growth of human tongue carcinoma cells preferentially over normal cells.13

On the basis of our results, hydrogen water merits further investigation for possible therapeutic/preventative use for age-related cognitive disorders.14

Metabolic syndrome is characterized by cardio metabolic risk factors that include obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Oxidative stress is known to play a major role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, drinking hydrogen rich water represents a potentially novel therapeutic and preventive strategy for metabolic syndrome.15

In this study rats were given HRW (Hydrogen Reduced Water) for sixteen weeks. The findings were: water intake and urine flow were greater in the rats given HRW. They found that the antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in the HRW than in the control group. They also found that the glomerulosclerosis   score for the HRW group was significantly lower than in the control group. The present findings suggest that HRW conferred significant benefits against abnormalities in the metabolic syndrome model rats, at least by preventing and ameliorating glomerulosclerosis and creatinine clearance.16

Our study demonstrates that H(2) exerts metabolic effects similar to those of insulin and may be a novel therapeutic alternative to insulin in type 1 diabetes mellitus that can be administered orally.17

Drinking HW significantly reduced neointima formation after vein grafting in rats. Drinking HW may have therapeutic value as a novel therapy for intimal hyperplasia and could easily be incorporated into daily life.18

In a study performed by the Serbian Ministry of Science HRW demonstrated potential to be used as an alkalizing agent in individuals with exercise-induced metabolic acidosis.19

This study indicates that the inhibitory effect of ERW on tumor invasion is due to, at least in part, its antioxidative effect.20

These results suggest that electrolyzed reduced water can prevent apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells and the development of symptoms in type 1 diabetes model mice by alleviating the Alloxan-derived generation of reactive oxygen species.21

Insulin-producing cells express limited activities of anti-oxidative enzymes. Therefore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in these cells play a crucial role in cytotoxic effects. The two Naturally Reducing Waters tested here are promising candidates for the prevention of Diabetes Mellitus development.22

Since the first description of Parkinson’s disease (PD) nearly two centuries ago, a number of studies have revealed the clinical symptoms, pathology, and therapeutic approaches to overcome this intractable neurodegenerative disease. 1-methy-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) are neurotoxins which produce Parkinsonian pathology. From the animal studies using these neurotoxins, it has become well established that oxidative stress is a primary cause of, and essential for, cellular apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we describe the mechanism whereby oxidative stress evokes irreversible cell death, and propose a novel therapeutic strategy for PD using molecular hydrogen. Hydrogen has an ability to reduce oxidative damage and ameliorate the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal pathway in two experimental animal models. Thus, it is strongly suggested that hydrogen might provide a great advantage to prevent or minimize the onset and progression of PD.23

Hydrogen has potential for improving the quality of life of patients during chemotherapy by efficiently mitigating the side effects of cisplatin.24

ApoE/ mice drank H2–water ad libitum from 2 to 6 months old throughout the whole period. Atherosclerotic lesions were significantly reduced by ad libitum drinking of H2–water (p = 0.0069) as judged by Oil-Red-O staining series of sections of aorta. The oxidative stress level of aorta was decreased. Accumulation of macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions was confirmed. Thus, consumption of H2-dissolved water has the potential to prevent arteriosclerosis.25

H2 acted to restore transcriptional alterations induced by ONOO-.These results imply that one of the functions of H2 exhibits cytoprotective (protecting cells from noxious chemicals or other stimuli) effects and transcriptional alterations through reducing ONOO-. Moreover, novel pharmacological strategies aimed at selective removal of ONOO- may represent a powerful method for preventive and therapeutic use of H2 for joint diseases.27

Hydrogen water increased breath hydrogen concentrations from 8.6 ± 2.1 to 32.6 ± 3.3 ppm (mean and SEM, n = 8) in 10 min in healthy subjects. Lactulose increased breath hydrogen concentrations in 86% of healthy subjects and 59% of PD patients. Compared to monophasic hydrogen increases in 71% of healthy subjects, 32% and 41% of PD patients showed biphasic and no increases, respectively. Lactulose also increased breath hydrogen levels monophasically in 9 rats. Lactulose, however, marginally ameliorated 6-OHDA-induced PD in rats. Continuous administration of 2% hydrogen gas similarly had marginal effects. On the other hand, intermittent administration of 2% hydrogen gas prevented PD in 4 of 6 rats. Lack of dose responses of hydrogen and the presence of favourable effects with hydrogen water and intermittent hydrogen gas suggest that signal modulating activities of hydrogen are likely to be instrumental in exerting a protective effect against PD.28

The results suggest that the hydroxyl radical scavenger H2 effectively reduces oxidative stress in patients with this condition. The symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis were significantly improved with high H2 water.29

These results indicate that HRW inhibits the production of α,β-dicarbonyl compounds and ROS in the kidneys of SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats. Therefore, it has therapeutic potential for renal dysfunction in patient with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.30

Adequate hydration with hydrogen-rich water pre-exercise reduced blood lactate levels and improved exercise-induced decline of muscle function. Although further studies to elucidate the exact mechanisms and the benefits are needed to be confirmed in larger series of studies, these preliminary results may suggest that HW may be suitable hydration for athletes.31

It has been shown that molecular hydrogen (H2) acts as a therapeutic antioxidant and suppresses brain injury by buffering the effects of oxidative stress. Chronic oxidative stress causes neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Our results indicated that low concentration of H2 in drinking water can reduce oxidative stress in the brain. Thus, drinking H2-containing water may be useful in daily life to prevent or minimize the risk of life style-related oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.32

The properties and effects of neutral pH hydrogen-enriched electrolyzed water (NHE water) on tumor cells were examined. Thus, NHE water was shown to achieve tumor-preferential growth inhibition and tumor invasion together with scavenging of intracellular oxidants, and is expected as a preventive material against tumor progression and invasion.33

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key mediator of tumor angiogenesis. Tumor cells are exposed to higher oxidative stress compared to normal cells. Numerous reports have demonstrated that the intracellular redox (oxidation/reduction) state is closely associated with the pattern of VEGF expression. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) produced near the cathode during the electrolysis of water scavenged intracellular H2O2 and decreased the release of H2O2 from a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549, and down-regulated both VEGF transcription and protein secretion in a time-dependent manner. As well, ERW inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a time-dependent manner. Co-culture experiments to analyse in vitro tubule formation assay revealed that A549 cell-derived conditioned medium significantly stimulated the formation of vascular tubules in all analysed parameters; tubule total area, tubule junction, number of tubules, and total tubule length. ERW counteracted the effect of A549 cell-conditioned medium and decreased total tube length (p<0.01). The present study demonstrated that ERW down-regulated VEGF gene transcription and protein secretion through inactivation of ERK.34

Molecular hydrogen has been reported to be effective for a variety of disorders and its effects have been ascribed to the reduction of oxidative stress. However, we have recently demonstrated that hydrogen inhibits type I allergy through modulating intracellular signal transduction. These results suggested a role for molecular hydrogen as a signal modulator. Finally, oral intake of hydrogen-rich water alleviated anti-type II collagen antibody-induced arthritis in mice, a model for human rheumatoid arthritis.35

Hydrogen-enriched water improves mitochondrial dysfunction in MM and inflammatory processes in PM/DM. One of the patients who was an insulin-treated MELAS patient had a hypoglycaemic episode. This was rectified by lowering the insulin dose.36

Molecular hydrogen ameliorates oxidative stress-associated diseases in animal models. We found that oral intake of hydrogen-rich water abolishes an immediate-type allergic reaction in mice. In the immediate-type allergic reaction, hydrogen exerts its beneficial effect not by its radical scavenging activity but by modulating a specific signalling pathway. Effects of hydrogen in other diseases are possibly mediated by modulation of yet unidentified signalling pathways.37

Oxidative stress is recognized widely as being associated with various disorders including diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. It is well established that hydrogen has a reducing action. We therefore investigated the effects of hydrogen-rich water intake on lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with either type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 30 patients with T2DM controlled by diet and exercise therapy and 6 patients with IGT. The patients consumed either 900 mL/d of hydrogen-rich pure water or 900 mL of placebo pure water for 8 weeks, with a 12-week washout period. Several biomarkers of oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism, assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test, were evaluated at baseline and at 8 weeks. Intake of hydrogen-rich water was associated with significant decreases in the levels of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (ie, modifications that increase the net negative charge of LDL), small dense LDL, and urinary 8-isoprostanes by 15.5% (P < .01), 5.7% (P < .05), and 6.6% (P < .05), respectively. Hydrogen-rich water intake was also associated with a trend of decreased serum concentrations of oxidized LDL and free fatty acids, and increased plasma levels of adiponectin and extracellular-superoxide dismutase. In 4 of 6 patients with IGT, intake of hydrogen-rich water normalized the oral glucose tolerance test. In conclusion, these results suggest that supplementation with hydrogen-rich water may have a beneficial role in prevention of T2DM and insulin resistance.38

Basal cellular viability and function to generate superoxide radicals of PMNs were better preserved by e-RO application. In the clinical trial, reductions of blood pressure were noted, but no adverse events were observed. There were no changes in the blood dialysis parameters, although methylguanidine levels were significantly decreased at the end of study. The present study demonstrated the capacity of e-RO to preserve the viability of PMNs, and the clinical feasibility of applying this water for HD treatment. The clinical application of this technology may improve the bio-compatibility of HD treatment.39

In this study there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) before and after dialysis. A significant number of patients achieved SBP <140 mmHg after Haemodialysis. This system could offer a novel therapeutic option for control of uraemia.40

First, we show that hepatic glycogen accumulates H2 after oral administration of H2-water, explaining why consumption of even a small amount of H2 over a short span time efficiently improves various disease models. Long-term drinking H2-water significantly controlled fat and body weights, despite no increase in consumption of diet and water. Moreover, drinking H2-water decreased levels of plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride, the effect of which on hyperglycaemia was similar to diet restriction. H2 stimulated energy metabolism as measured by oxygen consumption. The present results suggest the potential benefit of H2 in improving obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.41

Nano-bubble hydrogen water with platinum colloid is potent as an anti-tumor agent.42

Supplementation with hydrogen-rich water was extremely effective in improving the bladder pain score in 11% of the patients.43

This study demonstrated that hydrogen-rich water ameliorates renal dysfunction due to cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.44

Oxidative stress is a strong contributor to the progression from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Molecular hydrogen is an effective antioxidant that reduces cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Consumption of hydrogen-rich water may be an effective treatment for NASH by reducing hepatic oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and hepatocarcinogenesis.45 

By 2011, these sixty-three disease models and human diseases are where beneficial effects of hydrogen has been documented.

Cerebral infarctionRodent, humanGas, saline
Cerebral superoxide productionRodentWater
Restraint-induced dementiaRodentWater
Alzheimer's diseaseRodentSaline
Senile dementia in senescence-accelerated miceRodentWater
Parkinson's diseaseRodentWater
Haemorrhagic infarctionRodentGas
Brain traumaRodentGas
Carbon monoxide intoxicationRodentSaline
Transient global cerebral ischemiaRodentGas
Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest-induced brain damageRodentSaline
Surgically induced brain injuryRodentGas
Spinal Cord
Spinal cord injuryRodentSaline
Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusionRabbitGas
Corneal alkali-burnRodentInstillation
Hearing lossTissue, rodentMedium, water
Oxygen-induced lung injuryRodentSaline
Lung transplantationRodentGas
Paraquat-induced lung injuryRodentSaline
Radiation-induced lung injuryRodentWater
Burn-induced lung injuryRodentSaline
Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injuryRodentSaline
Acute myocardial infarctionRodentGas, saline
Cardiac transplantationRodentGas
Sleep apnea-induced cardiac hypoxiaRodentGas
Schistosomiasis-associated chronic liver inflammationRodentGas
Liver ischemia/reperfusionRodentGas
HepatitisRodentIntestinal gas
Obstructive jaundiceRodentSaline
Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathyRodentSaline
Radiation-induced adverse effects for liver tumorsHumanWater
Cisplatin-induced nephropathyRodentGas, water
HaemodialysisHumanDialysis solution
Kidney transplantationRodentWater
Renal ischemia/reperfusionRodentSaline
Melamine-induced urinary stoneRodentWater
Chronic kidney diseaseRodentWater
Acute pancreatitisRodentSaline
Intestinal transplantationRodentGas, medium, saline
Ulcerative colitisRodentGas
Intestinal ischemia/reperfusionRodentSaline
Blood vessel
Inflammatory and mitochondrial myopathiesHumanWater
NO-induced cartilage toxicityCellsMedium
Diabetes mellitus type IRodentWater
Diabetes mellitus type IIHumanWater
Metabolic syndromeHuman, rodentWater
Perinatal disorders
Neonatal cerebral hypoxiaRodent, pigGas, saline
Type I allergyRodentWater
Zymosan-induced inflammationRodentGas
LPS/IFNγ-induced NO productionCellsGas
Growth of tongue carcinoma cellsCellsMedium
Lung cancer cellsCellsMedium
Radiation-induced thymic lymphomaRodentSaline
UVB-induced skin injuryRodentBathing
Decompression sicknessRodentSaline
Viability of pluripotent stromal cellsCellsGas
Radiation-induced cell damageCellsMedium
Oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced cell toxicityCellsMedium
High glucose-induced oxidative stressCellsMedium



1 Sanetaka Shirahata, En Murakami,Ken-ichi Kusumoto, Makiko Yamashita, Masaaki Oda, Kiichiro Temya,Shigeru Kabayama,Kazumichi Otsubo, Shinkatsu Morisawa, Hidemitsu Hayashi, Yoshinori Katakura Animal Cell Technology: Challenges for the 21st Century 2002, pp 355-359 Telomere Shortening in Cancer Cells by Electrolyzed-Reduced Water

2 Ohsawa I1, Ishikawa M, Takahashi K, Watanabe M, Nishimaki K, Yamagata K, Katsura K, Katayama Y, Asoh S, Ohta S Nat Med. 2007 Jun;13(6):688-94. Epub 2007 May 7 Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals

3 Ohta S Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012 May;1820(5):586-94. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2011.05.006. Epub 2011 May 20 Molecular hydrogen is a novel antioxidant to efficiently reduce oxidative stress with potential for the improvement of mitochondrial diseases

4 Hyun-Won Kim Department. of Biochemistry, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-701, Korea Alkaline Reduced Water produced by UMQ showed Anti-cancer and Anti-diabetic effect

5 Lee MY1, Kim YK, Ryoo KK, Lee YB, Park EJ Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2006 Nov;135(2):133-44 Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein.

6 Huang KC1, Hsu SP, Yang CC, Ou-Yang P, Lee KT, Morisawa S, Otsubo K, Chien CT Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010 Aug;25(8):2730-7. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfq082. Epub 2010 Feb 26 Electrolysed-reduced water dialysate improves T-cell damage in end-stage renal disease patients with chronic haemodialysis

7 Tsai CF1, Hsu YW, Chen WK, Ho YC, Lu FJ.  Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009 Feb;73(2):280-7. Epub 2009 Feb 7 Enhanced induction of mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells due to electrolyzed-reduced water and glutathione

8 Nishikawa R1, Teruya K, Katakura Y, Osada K, Hamasaki T, Kashiwagi T, Komatsu T, Li Y, Ye J, Ichikawa A, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Xu Q, Shirahata S Cytotechnology. 2005 Jan;47(1-3):97-105. doi: 10.1007/s10616-005-3759-2 Electrolyzed Reduced Water Supplemented with Platinum Nanoparticles Suppresses Promotion of Two-stage Cell Transformation9 Suppressive Effect of Electrolyzed-Reduced Water on the Growth of Cancer Cells and Microorganisms

10 T. Hamasaki, S. Aramaki, T. Imada, K. Teruya, S. Kabayama, Y. Katakura, K. Otubo, S. Morisawa, S. Shirahata Cell Technology for Cell Products Volume 3, 2007, pp 87-89 Induction of Caspase-3-dependent Apoptosis by Electrolyzed Reduced Water/platinum Nanoparticles in Cancer Cells

11 Kang KM1, Kang YN, Choi IB, Gu Y, Kawamura T, Toyoda Y, Nakao A Med Gas Res. 2011 Jun 7;1(1):11. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-1-11 Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the quality of life of patients treated with radiotherapy for liver tumors

12 Yang Y1, Li B, Liu C, Chuai Y, Lei J, Gao F, Cui J, Sun D, Cheng Y, Zhou C, Cai J Med Sci Monit. 2012 Apr;18(4):BR144-8 Hydrogen-rich saline protects immunocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis

13 Saitoh Y1, Yoshimura Y, Nakano K, Miwa N Exp Oncol. 2009 Sep;31(3):156-62 Platinum nanocolloid-supplemented hydrogen-dissolved water inhibits growth of human tongue carcinoma cells preferentially over normal cells

14 Yeunhwa Gu,1 Chien-Sheng Huang,2,3 Tota Inoue,1 Takenori Yamashita,1 Torao Ishida,1 Ki-Mun Kang,4 and Atsunori Nakao3 J Clin Biochem Nutr. May 2010; 46(3): 269–276 Drinking Hydrogen Water Ameliorated Cognitive Impairment in Senescence-Accelerated Mice

15 Atsunori Nakao,1,* Yoshiya Toyoda,1 Prachi Sharma,2 Malkanthi Evans,2 and Najla Guthrie J Clin Biochem Nutr. Mar 2010; 46(2): 140–149 Effectiveness of Hydrogen Rich Water on Antioxidant Status of Subjects with Potential Metabolic Syndrome – An Open Label Pilot Study

16 Hashimoto M1, Katakura M, Nabika T, Tanabe Y, Hossain S, Tsuchikura S, Shido O Med Gas Res. 2011 Nov 3;1(1):26. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-1-26 Effects of hydrogen-rich water on abnormalities in a SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat - a metabolic syndrome rat model

17 Amitani H1, Asakawa A, Cheng K, Amitani M, Kaimoto K, Nakano M, Ushikai M, Li Y, Tsai M, Li JB, Terashi M, Chaolu H, Kamimura R, Inui A PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53913. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053913. Epub 2013 Jan 10 Hydrogen Improves Glycaemic Control in Type1 Diabetic Animal Model by Promoting Glucose Uptake into Skeletal Muscle

18 Sun Q1, Kawamura T, Masutani K, Peng X, Sun Q, Stolz DB, Pribis JP, Billiar TR, Sun X, Bermudez CA, Toyoda Y, Nakao A Cardiovasc Res. 2012 Apr 1;94(1):144-53. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvs024. Epub 2012 Jan 27 Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water inhibits intimal hyperplasia in arterialized vein grafts in rats

19 Sergej M. Ostojic Mayo Clin Proc. May 2012; 87(5): 501–502 Serum Alkalinization and Hydrogen-Rich Water in Healthy Men

20 Kinjo T1, Ye J, Yan H, Hamasaki T, Nakanishi H, Toh K, Nakamichi N, Kabayama S, Teruya K, Shirahata S Cytotechnology. 2012 May;64(3):357-71. doi: 10.1007/s10616-012-9469-7. Epub 2012 Jun 14 Suppressive effects of electrochemically reduced water on matrix etalloproteinase-2 activities and in vitro invasion of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells

21 Li Y1, Hamasaki T, Nakamichi N, Kashiwagi T, Komatsu T, Ye J, Teruya K, Abe M, Yan H, Kinjo T, Kabayama S, Kawamura M, Shirahata S Cytotechnology. 2011 Mar;63(2):119-31. doi: 10.1007/s10616-010-9317-6. Epub 2010 Nov 10 Suppressive effects of electrolyzed reduced water on Alloxan-induced apoptosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus

22 Li Y1, Hamasaki T, Teruya K, Nakamichi N, Gadek Z, Kashiwagi T, Yan H, Kinjo T, Komatsu T, Ishii Y, Shirahata S Cytotechnology. 2012 May;64(3):281-97. doi: 10.1007/s10616-011-9414-1. Epub 2011 Dec 6 Suppressive effects of natural reduced waters on Alloxan-induced apoptosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus

23 Kyota Fujita,1 Yusaku Nakabeppu,2 and Mami Noda1 Parkinson's Disease Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 307875, 9 pages Therapeutic Effects of Hydrogen in Animal Models of Parkinson’s disease

24 Nakashima-Kamimura N1, Mori T, Ohsawa I, Asoh S, Ohta S Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009 Sep;64(4):753-61. doi: 10.1007/s00280-008-0924-2. Epub 2009 Jan 16 Molecular hydrogen alleviates nephrotoxicity induced by an anti-cancer drug cisplatin without compromising anti-tumor activity in mice

25 Ohsawa I1, Nishimaki K, Yamagata K, Ishikawa M, Ohta S Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Dec 26;377(4):1195-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.10.156. Epub 2008 Nov 6 Consumption of hydrogen water prevents atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein 3E knockout mice

26 Ito M1, Ibi T, Sahashi K, Ichihara M, Ito M, Ohno K Med Gas Res. 2011 Oct 3;1(1):24. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-1-24 Open-label trial and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of hydrogen-enriched water for mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies

27 Hanaoka T1, Kamimura N, Yokota T, Takai S, Ohta S Med Gas Res. 2011 Aug 4;1(1):18. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-1-18 Molecular hydrogen protects chondrocytes from oxidative stress and indirectly alters gene expressions through reducing peroxynitrite derived from nitric oxide

28 Ito M1, Hirayama M, Yamai K, Goto S, Ito M, Ichihara M, Ohno K Med Gas Res. 2012 May 20;2(1):15. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-2-15 Drinking hydrogen water and intermittent hydrogen gas exposure, but not lactulose or continuous hydrogen gas exposure, prevent 6-hydorxydopamine-induced Parkinson’s disease in rats

29 Ishibashi T1, Sato B, Rikitake M, Seo T, Kurokawa R, Hara Y, Naritomi Y, Hara H, Nagao T Med Gas Res. 2012 Oct 2;2(1):27. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-2-27 Consumption of water containing a high concentration of molecular hydrogen reduces oxidative stress and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an open-label pilot study

30 Katakura M1, Hashimoto M, Tanabe Y, Shido O Med Gas Res. 2012 Jul 9;2(1):18. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-2-18 Hydrogen-rich water inhibits glucose and α,β -dicarbonyl compound-induced reactive oxygen species production in the SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat kidney

31 Aoki K1, Nakao A2, Adachi T1, Matsui Y1, Miyakawa S1 Med Gas Res. 2012 Jul 12;2:12. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-2-12. eCollection 2012 Pilot study: Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on muscle fatigue caused by acute exercise in elite athletes

32 Fujita K1, Seike T, Yutsudo N, Ohno M, Yamada H, Yamaguchi H, Sakumi K, Yamakawa Y, Kido MA, Takaki A, Katafuchi T, Tanaka Y, Nakabeppu Y, Noda M PLoS One. 2009 Sep 30;4(9):e7247. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007247 Hydrogen in Drinking Water Reduces Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

33 Saitoh Y1, Okayasu H, Xiao L, Harata Y, Miwa N Oncol Res. 2008;17(6):247-55 Neutral pH Hydrogen-Enriched Electrolyzed Water Achieves Tumor-Preferential Clonal Growth Inhibition over Normal Cells and Tumor Invasion Inhibition Concurrently With Intracellular Oxidant Repression

34 Ye J1, Li Y, Hamasaki T, Nakamichi N, Komatsu T, Kashiwagi T, Teruya K, Nishikawa R, Kawahara T, Osada K, Toh K, Abe M, Tian H, Kabayama S, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Katakura Y, Shirahata S Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Jan;31(1):19-26 Inhibitory effect of electrolyzed reduced water on tumor angiogenesis

35 Itoh T1, Hamada N, Terazawa R, Ito M, Ohno K, Ichihara M, Nozawa Y, Ito M Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Jul 22;411(1):143-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.06.116. Epub 2011 Jun 23. Molecular hydrogen inhibits lipopolysaccharide/interferon γ-induced nitric oxide production through modulation of signal transduction in macrophages

36 Ito M1, Ibi T, Sahashi K, Ichihara M, Ito M, Ohno K Med Gas Res. 2011 Oct 3;1(1):24. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-1-24 Open-label trial and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of hydrogen-enriched water for mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies

37 Itoh T1, Fujita Y, Ito M, Masuda A, Ohno K, Ichihara M, Kojima T, Nozawa Y, Ito M Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Nov 27;389(4):651-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.09.047. Epub 2009 Sep 17 Molecular hydrogen suppresses FcepsilonRI-mediated signal transduction and prevents degranulation of mast cells

38 Kajiyama S1, Hasegawa G, Asano M, Hosoda H, Fukui M, Nakamura N, Kitawaki J, Imai S, Nakano K, Ohta M, Adachi T, Obayashi H, Yoshikawa T Nutr Res. 2008 Mar;28(3):137-43. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2008.01.008 Supplementation of hydrogen-rich water improves lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance

39 Nakayama M1, Kabayama S, Nakano H, Zhu WJ, Terawaki H, Nakayama K, Katoh K, Satoh T, Ito S Nephron Clin Pract. 2009;112(1):c9-15. doi: 10.1159/000210569. Epub 2009 Apr 3 Biological effects of electrolyzed water in haemodialysis

40 Nakayama M1, Nakano H, Hamada H, Itami N, Nakazawa R, Ito S. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010 Sep;25(9):3026-33. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfq196. Epub 2010 Apr 12 A novel bioactive haemodialysis system using dissolved dihydrogen (H2) produced by water electrolysis: a clinical trial

41 Kamimura N1, Nishimaki K, Ohsawa I, Ohta S Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Jul;19(7):1396-403. doi: 10.1038/oby.2011.6. Epub 2011 Feb 3 Molecular Hydrogen Improves Obesity and Diabetes by Inducing Hepatic FGF21 and Stimulating Energy Metabolism in db/db Mice

42 Asada R1, Kageyama K, Tanaka H, Matsui H, Kimura M, Saitoh Y, Miwa N Oncol Rep. 2010 Dec;24(6):1463-70 Antitumor effects of nano-bubble hydrogen-dissolved water are enhanced by coexistent platinum colloid and the combined hyperthermia with apoptosis-like cell death

43 Matsumoto S1, Ueda T, Kakizaki H Urology. 2013 Feb;81(2):226-30. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2012.10.026 Effect of supplementation with hydrogen-rich water in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrom

44 Kitamura A1, Kobayashi S, Matsushita T, Fujinawa H, Murase K Br J Radiol. 2010 Jun;83(990):509-14. doi: 10.1259/bjr/25604811 Experimental verification of protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using dynamic contrast-enhanced CT

45 Kawai D1, Takaki A, Nakatsuka A, Wada J, Tamaki N, Yasunaka T, Koike K, Tsuzaki R, Matsumoto K, Miyake Y, Shiraha H, Morita M, Makino H, Yamamoto K. Hepatology. 2012 Sep;56(3):912-21. doi: 10.1002/hep.25782. Epub 2012 Jul 17 Hydrogen-rich water prevents progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and accompanying hepatocarcinogenesis in mice

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